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Aging is a multifactorial process that leads to loss of function. These processes are interdependent and happen simultaneously. For study purposes, they can be classified in 9 categories ("The Hallmarks of Aging" by López-Otín C, et al. Cell. 2013).

Loss of proteostasis

Loss of proteostasis

Proteins are essential for all cellular processes. The mechanisms that maintain protein structure, function, localization, and turnover are inadequate in aged cells.

Epigenetic changes

Epigenetic changes

Aging is associated to distinct modifications in the way the DNA is stored and read. These changes do not alter the genetic code, but significantly modify gene expression.

Genetic instability

Genetic instability

Failure of DNA repair mechanisms leads to loss of information and mutations of the genetic code in aged cells.


Telomere attrition

Telomere attrition

DNA is packed as chromosomes, and telomeres are the protective caps of these chromosomes. Telomeres shorten each time a cell dives, until the cell becomes unable to replicate.

Dysregulated nutrient sensin

Dysregulated nutrient sensing

Handling excess nutrients is a big challenge for cells. The mechanisms that control nutrient availability and utilization fail with age.

Mitochondrial dysfunction

Mitochondrial dysfunction

Mitochondria are the organelles that produce energy consuming oxygen. Mitochondria become leaky and inefficient with aging.

Aging is associated to distinct modifications in the way the DNA is stored and read. These changes do not alter the genetic code, but significantly modify gene expression.


Cellular senescence

Cellular senescence

Senescent cells accumulate in aged tissues. These cells stop functioning properly, cannot divide, and fail to die. Senescent cells produce inflammatory factors that damage their tissue and the organism.

Stem cell exhaustion

Stem cell exhaustion

Stem cells maintain and repair tissues. In aged organisms, the pool of stem cells decreases, and the regenerative capacity of individual stem cells declines.

Altered intercellular communication

Altered intercellular communication

Aged cells fail to coordinate their metabolism and function within the same tissue and across multiple organs. Abnormal communication signals lead to unnecessary chronic inflammation.


The following parameters estimate biological age objectively:

Aging Biometrics